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  • biodiesel production from palm oil using calcined waste animal bone as catalyst

    جزئیات بیشتر مقاله
    • تاریخ ارائه: 1390/01/01
    • تاریخ انتشار در تی پی بین: 1390/01/01
    • تعداد بازدید: 557
    • تعداد پرسش و پاسخ ها: 0
    • شماره تماس دبیرخانه رویداد: -
     waste animal bones was employed as a cost effective catalyst for the transesterification of palm oil. the catalyst was calcined at different temperatures to transform the calcium phosphate in the bones to hydroxyapatite and 800 °c was found to give the best yield of biodiesel. the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (sem), x-ray diffraction (xrd), energy dispersive spectrometry (eds) and fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ft-ir). under the optimal reaction conditions of 20 wt.% of catalyst, 1:18 oil to methanol molar ratio, 200 rpm of stirring of reactants and at a temperature of 65 °c, the methyl ester conversion was 96.78% and it was achieved in 4 h. the catalyst performed equally well as the laboratory-grade cao. animal bone is therefore a useful raw material for the production of a cheap catalyst for transesterification.

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